The 5 Tools That Make Lean Manufacturing Thrive
Lean manufacturing is an increasingly popular methodology that aspires to minimise waste whilst simultaneously maximising productivity in manufacturing systems ─ waste, defined not by what gets thrown in the bin, but by what the customer believes. If something does not add value to the product and customers aren’t so keen on paying for it, then it’s waste. This unorthodox method led Toyota Motor Corporation to superstardom on the manufacturing scene, with their industry-leading Toyota Production System (TPS). They successfully produce some of the best vehicles on the planet, with the least waste, in the fastest possible way.
Toyota’s lean manufacturing system has been adopted by a myriad of automobile manufacturers around the world, including Ford, General Motors, and Honda, and the conventions, rules and tools at its foundation have been implemented in systems across society, including hospitals and postal services. The TPS is, for lack of better words, a stalwart norm in an otherwise ever-evolving industry.
The Five Lean Manufacturing Tools
For many small and medium-sized manufacturers today, Lean is an absolutely invaluable system that helps them maximise their potential whilst reducing their carbon footprint and overall spend. There are many tools in place to ensure this trend, but TPS provides five essentials that all executive and management figures must understand to ‘get’ the idea that has launched Toyota into the stratosphere.
Kaizen, simply put, is a system that strives for continuous improvement across seven different sectors: company culture, leadership, processes, productivity, quality, safety, and technology.
The idea behind Kaizen is that workplaces are inclusive and every employee, regardless of position in the hierarchy, can throw ideas into the hat for process improvement. Acceptance of opinion everybody’s doesn’t necessarily result in a major change within an organisation, but over time, there are bound to be small improvements here and there that add up and lead to significant reductions in wasted resources.
Inventory waste and overproduction have been two of the biggest factors in overall loss in manufacturing companies across the last century. Before artificial intelligence and predictive analytics infiltrated the management scene, companies had to prepare for potential consumer demands without truly knowing what the trend would be, year-on-year. Often, this would lead to overstocking individual items, which turned out to be redundant when the consumers came calling.
Kanban alleviates this. When an item on the assembly line or a stocked item starts to run low, employees can trip a visual reorder tool that triggers an automatic reorder of the relevant inventory. Rather than ordering the maximum, the system orders just enough to replenish the amount that is actually being used at any given time, which prevents a large backlog of stock.
Nobody wants 100 car doors when there are only four cars to produce, right?
Jidoka is a historical art ─ in fact, it’s been around since the beginning of the 19th century. It’s the concept of designing equipment that is partially automated but will stop ─ without human influence ─ whenever a defect is detected. It’s almost like a trigger; the machine works out that there’s a problem, pauses production, and then the human overseeing the line can step in to fix the issue before the tools continue their job.
Naturally, if a machine can detect defects and doesn’t mindlessly continue regardless of them, the overall quality of final products is much higher ─ resulting in a massive cost reduction. Also, as the machines are automated, manufacturers only need one employee to watch over whole production lines. So, less human error, less wage budget usage, and higher productivity levels through robotic process automation.
Value Stream Mapping (VSM)
VSM is a visual tool that manufacturers and organisations, in general, can use to illustrate, analyse, and understand the flow of materials from the supplier to the customer as well as the flow of information within the organisation. With an overall illustration of the system, companies can easily identify production or information bottlenecks, and they can start to innovate solutions for them.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM probably gives away its purpose through its name; it’s an organisation-wide approach that looks to improve the quality of products and services across the board. Through the four phases of the Deming Cycle ─ Plan, Do, Check, and Act (PDCA), TQM continuously refines and fine-tunes processes, to ensure that products and services are of the utmost quality before they reach the customer.
The five guiding principles of lean manufacturing aren’t necessarily perfect, but they are classed as industry-leading, and they’ve been prevalent in the success stories of some of the biggest multinational corporations that dominate the markets today. The tools, if you look closely, represent identifying value, mapping the value stream, creating flow, establishing pull, and seeking perfection. If you can manage that in your own organisation, just like Toyota Motor Corporation and many others, you can eliminate excess waste from your production lines, and improve overall efficiency and quality ─ ambitions that we should all hold close to our heart.
Ultium Cells LLC/Li-Cycle: Sustainable Battery Manufacturing
Ultium Cells LLC - a joint venture between General Motors and LG Energy Solutions - has announced its latest collaboration with Li-Cycle. Joining forces the two have set ambitions to expand recycling in North America, recycling up to 100% of the scrap materials in battery cell manufacturing
What is Ultium Cells LLC?
Announcing their partnership in December 2019, General Motors (GM) and LG Energy Solutions established Ultium Cells LLC with a mission to “ensure excellence of Battery Cell Manufacturing through implementation of best practices from each company to contribute [to the] expansion of a Zero Emission propulsion on a global scale.”
Who is Li-Cycle?
Founded in 2016, Li-Cycle leverages innovative solutions to address emerging and urgent challenges around the world.
As the use of Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries in automotive, industrial energy storage, and consumer electronic applications rises, Li-Cycle believes that “the world needs improved technology and supply chain innovations to better recycle these batteries, while also meeting the rapidly growing demand for critical and scarce battery-grade materials.”
Why are Ultium Cells LLC and Li-Cycle join forces?
By joining forces to expand the recycling of scrap materials in battery cell manufacturing in North America, the new recycling process will allow Ultium Cells LLC to recycle cobalt, nickel, lithium, graphite, copper, manganese and aluminum.
“95% of these materials can be used in the production of new batteries or for adjacent industries,” says GM, who explains that the new hydrometallurgical process emits 30% less greenhouse gases (GHGs) than traditional processes, minimising the environmental impact. Use of this process will begin later in the year (2021).
"Our combined efforts with Ultium Cells will be instrumental in redirecting battery manufacturing scrap from landfills and returning a substantial amount of valuable battery-grade materials back into the battery supply chain. This partnership is a critical step forward in advancing our proven lithium-ion resource recovery technology as a more sustainable alternative to mining, " said Ajay Kochhar, President, CEO and co-founder of Li-Cycle.
"GM's zero-waste initiative aims to divert more than 90% of its manufacturing waste from landfills and incineration globally by 2025. Now, we're going to work closely with Ultium Cells and Li-Cycle to help the industry get even better use out of the materials,” added Ken Morris, Vice President of Electric and Autonomous Vehicles, GM.
Since 2013, GM has recycled or reused 100% of the battery packs it has received from customers, with most current GM EVs repaired with refurbished packs.
"We strive to make more with less waste and energy expended. This is a crucial step in improving the sustainability of our components and manufacturing processes,” concluded Thomas Gallagher, Chief Operating Officer, Ultium Cells LLC.